General Description

Disc deep, smooth, rhomboidal with diagonal rows of pale pores on each side of head; tail short, depressed, with large tubercles and thorns, tapering to the sharp finely serrated spine, fins absent. Greyish-brown above, slightly darker above eye and on tail, underside pale. Usually 2 m long head to tail tip (up to 4.3 m).


The largest of all stingrays, this species is reasonably common in shallow coastal waters. Although it may be seen gliding through the shallows, it often remains buried in the sand off beaches. The large serrated spine on the tail is venomous, and is used for defence. Smooth Stingrays can be very dangerous to humans due to their large size, and have been responsible for at least one death in Australia.


New Zealand, South Africa and Southern Australia.


Sandy bottoms of coastal waters and estuaries.

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