Copper One Penny Token minted by Thomas Stokes, Melbourne. Issued by J. Taylor, Bread & Biscuit Baker, Family Grocer, Ballarat, 1862. John Taylor was a baker in England, and arrived in Australia in 1852. He finally decided to settle in Ballarat, where he built a bakery and named it the 'Red House', developing a turnover of £20,000 a year. In 1863 he rebuilt his works and from that time on he placed the Governor's crest on his advertisements. His range of goods included biscuits, boiled sugars, and lozenges. In 1867 Taylor opened a second store, it was a Retail Confectionery Establishment, providing Fruit, Pastry, Confectionery, Biscuits and Wedding Cakes. Economic conditions in the mid 1870s led Taylor to close his shop and take up farming at Boort for seven years. He resumed his work in 1881, again establishing a very solid business. After his retirement he passed the business on to his son Robert, who was still managing it in 1910.
Previous Collections: George McArthur
A round bronze token (34 mm diameter). The token features the name, address and business of the issuer: J. Taylor, Red House, corner of Danna and Raglan Streets, Ballarat, bread and biscuit baker, family grocer. The reverse features wheat sheaf, from a Stokes stock die - Sharples Sheaf 1 = Heyde Sheaf 1 = Andrews 21 - it is dated 1862. This die is held by Museum Victoria see NU 35773.
At centre within a line circle, J.TAYLOR / RED HOUSE / CORNER OF / DANNA & RAGLAN / STREETS / BALLARAT; around, BREAD & BISCUIT BAKER FAMILY GROCER; border of 113 beads.
At centre a wheat sheaf with the cord holding it 4.7 mm long; around above, ADVANCE AUSTRALIA, around below, 1862. Border of 114 beads. This is a Stokes stock reverse - Sheaf 1, used for many trade token issuers. The die is in the collection see NU 35773
Transfer from National Gallery of Victoria (NGV), George McArthur, 15 Mar 1976
Obverse: J.TAYLOR RED HOUSE CORNER OF DANNA & RAGLAN STREETS BALLARAT BREAD & BISCUIT BAKER FAMILY GROCER Reverse: ADVANCE AUSTRALIA 1862
Type of item
34 mm (Outside Diameter), 14.973 g (Weight)
Stokes employed three of their stock reverses with the single Taylor obverse to fill the order from Taylor in 1862. This could mean that three different orders for tokens were made. Further, the wheat sheaf reverse occurs with two different die alignments (and perhaps two coinciding weight standards) suggesting a fourth issue. The tokens are scarce among collectors perhaps again suggesting multiple small orders from the firm. Stokes stock reverses were intended to make token manufacture inexpensive to encourage small issuers. J. Sharples 11 Oct 2004.
[Thesis] Lugton, Mary E. 1989. George McArthur of Maldon: his Life and his Book Collection.
[Catalogue] Morrison, Ian. 2003. The Baker of Maldon.
[Book] Andrews, Arthur. 1921. Australasian Tokens and Coins., No. 569
[Book] Heyde, Gilbert C. & Skinner, Dion H. 1967. Unofficial Coins of Colonial Australia and New Zealand., No. 243
[Article] Sharples, John P. 1993. A Catalogue of the Trade Tokens of Victoria 1848 to 1862. Journal of the Numismatic Association of Australia. vol.7: p.1-77., V. 8