Silver coin, Denomination: Penny
Aethelred II (978-1016); Kings of All England
Moneyer: Wulfmaer; Type: Long Cross (997-1003)
Purchased from Spink & Sons, London, 1932 as "15957 Aethelred II, Ythancester penny RRR EF". The attribution of coins of this King to Ythancaster seems to have been rejected since 1932.
Aethelred II ascended the throne after the murder of his half-brother, Edward the Martyr, by Aethelred's retainers when the king had come to visit him on the evening of 18 March 978. His reign saw increasing raids from Denmark both in number and strength, culminating in the Danish conquest of England under Cnut.
During the reign Aethelred a variety of different reverse designs were produced. These were part of a deliberate policy to raise revenue by periodic demonetization of the old designs. When new coins were struck the king would take a share of the silver used and the Exchequer would charge the mints for the new dies. In addition, the removal of old coins would help keep the coins in circulation at correct weight.
Aethelred died in London on 23 April 1016 and was succeeded by his son Eadmund.
Aethelred became known to history as the Unready. Unready is a mistranslation of the Old English - Æþelræd Unræd which translates to 'noble counsel no counsel'. His name meant 'noble counsel' and the epitaph suggested he received poor advice. However, the later victory of Cnut marking a successful Danish conquest of England has meant Aethelred the Unready has been adopted.
A bust of the King wearing armour facing left, the base of the bust reaches the edge of the coin, around, + AEDELRED REX ANG
A long cross voided; around, + VVL FMAER MO G EODA (Wulfmaer moneyer Giotha).
Transfer from National Gallery of Victoria (NGV), Spink & Son Ltd., 15 Mar 1976
Purchased, Felton Bequest, 1932
Type of item
20 mm (Outside Diameter), 1.333 g (Weight)
[Book] North, J. J. 1963. English Hammered Coinage., p.111, no.774 Pages
[Book] Skingley, Philip. 2007. Coins of England and the United Kingdom., p.128, no.1151 Pages