Conscription (also known as 'The Draft', the 'Call-up' or 'National Service') is a general term for involuntary labor demanded by an established authority. It is most often used in the specific sense of government policies that require citizens to serve in the armed forces. Conscription has been a contentious issue in Australia from the time of Federation in 1901. Whether during times of worldwide mobilisation and great patriotic fervour, as in the First and Second World Wars, or during smaller, more contentious conflicts, such as the Vietnam War, Australians have been divided in their stance on this issue.

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